World Order Continuum

Based on the above examined phases of various world orders, the following World Order Continuum may come into sight:

  • Europe and the US extended Westphalian order worldwide from 1648 => 1990
  • the US, in unipolar position, spread out liberal order from 1990 on => 2016
  • EU invented and forwarded post-Westphalian order from 1995 on => 2016
  • China and other Asian states designed Eastphalian order in late 2000s, still hold on it
  • China & Russia invented and designed Great Eurasian Partnership (based on Chinese BRI and Russian led EAEU) in mid 2010s, which may form as a platform for new polycentric world

While examining the possibility of Eastphalian order to expand from Asia to other regions, it is not likely due to non-expanding nature of present Asian major powers and their national heritage.

Instead, China and Russia, in twinpolarity position, can proceed, on the international scene, strongly and assertively enough, in order to create both a new polarity and a new world order.

The new polarity may be twinpolarity and the new political project will be a combination of spiritual values of Russian conservatism and Chinese Confucian traditions vs. Western democracy and liberalism.